Work-related stress 101

What causes stress at work and what can you do to manage your stressors?


The words pressure and stress are often used interchangeably but they are two very different things.


Just like an object, we can stand a certain amount of pressure without being unduly impacted. The object may respond to the pressure but, once the force is removed, it returns to its original shape/state. We show a similar resiliency.


However, if the pressure is stronger than the object it will become impacted (deform) and/or break. Likewise, when the pressure is more than we can cope with, we feel what we call in the health arena stress (in physics this is termed strain).


Whilst pressure can help us focus and may motivate us to get something done, no amount of stress is good for us. And over the long-term it can negatively impact our mental and physical health.


It is known to cause and/or influence many medical conditions. Evidence shows that chronic stress pushes up blood pressure and harms the heart. It has also been shown to play a role in gastro-intestinal disorders and diabetes.


Psychologically, it can lead to depression and anxiety, as well as make existing mental health issues worse.


In the UK, work-related stress, anxiety or depression is the primary cause of work-related absence. Between 1 April 2019 and 31 March, 2020 it accounted for around half of all work-related ill health cases and nearly 18 million working days were lost.


The HSE estimated approximately 828,000 workers were affected by work-related stress, depression or anxiety which was significantly higher than previous years. Analysis has determined that COVID-19 did not appear to be the main driver of this change (HSE, 2020).


The pressure-performance relationship

In the workplace, we all need sufficient motivational pressure to push us to do our job (targets, deadlines).


Too little, we can become bored and distracted, too much and we are in danger of burnout. Each of us has a unique optimal performance zone where the pressure is just right; I call it our goldilocks zone.

Pressure is not unusual at work. You could say it is inherent to some degree in every job.

Perhaps you are currently working to a tight deadline, juggling a number of tasks, dealing with a difficult situation/person or being asked to do something you don’t feel particularly comfortable or confident with.


If it all feels challenging yet manageable, you are in the stretch zone.


Human beings are wired for this. Our bodies are designed to cope with challenge, firing us up with fight/flight hormones to help us deal with whatever we need to confront. This can be helpful. It keeps us on task and makes us work efficiently.


Once the difficulty has passed and the challenge dealt with, our bodies switch back to a calm and more relaxed state. We return to our comfort zone.


But, if the demands are ever increasing, things are never done or the difficult situations relentless, the endless pressure can lead to stress.


When stressed we feel we have no sense of control and, no matter how organised we are, cannot manage all the demands (physical, mental, emotional) being asked of us.


We are more than stretched, we are strained.

At this stage the fight/flight response is firing all the time keeping us on high alert. In such a state, we are unable to think creatively, we feel stuck and alone and our performance starts to slow and slide.


If this situation continues for a long period, the person can soon start to feel a sense of hopelessness about their situation, cynical about their role and employer, emotionally and physically exhausted. In other words burned out.


What is work-related stress?

It is widely agreed that working is good for us as it can meet many of our super seven needs; it can provide a sense of purpose, achievement and belonging, as well as opportunities to grow and develop personally and professionally.


How then can it also cause harm?


According to the HSE, work-related stress is the harmful reaction people have to undue pressures and demands placed on them at work.


It has identified six aspects of job design, workplace culture and work environment that, if not adequately managed, can become stressors.



For example, you might feel stressed if:

  • when changes (personnel, technology, office, procedures) occur you have no avenue to offer input/comment or they are brought in quickly without notice or training (change)

  • the culture is one that does not align with your values, there is tension between teams or colleagues or perhaps you are feeling bullied and harassed (relationships)

  • your responsibilities conflict, your job description is unclear or there has been no training to help you in your role (role)

  • the processes and procedures seem bureaucratic, your manager provides little/no feedback or you have no colleagues with whom to share the load (support)

  • you have very little say in what work you are to do or how/when it is to be delivered (control)

  • you have more to do than you can realistically achieve, deadlines are tight or different people think you work to them (demands)

Managing your stressors

One of the things that happens when we are stressed is that we become blinkered and myopic in our view.


We are effectively so lost in the forest of what we have to deal with that the trees have blended into one and things can feel pretty dark. Whilst this is natural (we are designed to deal with threat through single focus) it is unfortunate as we cannot take the necessary helicopter view to find our way out.


Working with a coach gives you the opportunity and the time to explore with someone what is going on for you and what solutions there might be.


Understand what stressors are in play

When I start working with someone, the first thing I do is gain an understanding of what factors are in play.


Using the HSE’s work-place stress factors provides a list of topics for the conversation. Reviewing each of the six factors helps focus the session to identify what is occurring to cause the individual to feel stressed.

  1. Change

  2. Relationships

  3. Role

  4. Support

  5. Control

  6. Demands

NB. There is no right order to review the factors in. Start with the one that appeals most but be sure to consider them all. I’ve learned that if someone is suffering with workplace stress, more than one factor is usually at play.


Consider your resources

As well as being potential stressors, the first five factors can provide resources from which you can draw to better cope with the situation and/or find solutions.


For example, there may be communication avenues open to you for expressing your concerns about a change, input to a forth coming one or propose one that would improve things for you.

Or, whilst you may not feel comfortable talking to your manager about how you are doing, you can see yourself sharing with them if a supportive colleague is present.


Perhaps there are opportunities in the company for training and development that you can explore or maybe there is someone in-house that can mentor you so that you learn what you need know.


You may realise you have co-workers whom you might share the load with. And maybe the workplace offers flexibility on working so that you can work later or on a weekend with no interruptions to get something finished. NB this one is only a short-term solution to managing high volumes of work.


Once you have a clear picture of what stressors are in play and what resources might be available, you can then decide what to do.


Take action

Nothing will change unless you take action so the next step is to consider your options and decide what you are going to do and when you will do it.


This should include telling your manager or supervisor, other senior member of staff or HR representative what's going on so that management action can be taken. Sharing with them your review shows you have taken the initiative, helps them understand how to support you and also means they too don't just focus on one aspect.


Who knows, you may not be the only one but you might be the first one to speak about it. Managers then have a duty to act, not just on your behalf but for other people in similar roles.


Take care of you.


If you would like to discuss matters raised in this post feel free to drop me a line and we can set up a call.